Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. An ancient art, the first documented use of cryptography in writing dates back to1900 B.C. when an Egyptian scribe used non-standard hieroglyphs in an inscription. Derived from the Greek root crypto, meaning secret or hidden, cryptology is the science of coding and decoding secret messages. Modern cryptology and cryptography integrates the fields of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.
New forms of cryptography were established after the widespread development of computer communications. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is essential when communicating over any untrusted medium which includes a variety of networks, particularly the Internet. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration but can also be used for user authentication. There are in general, three types of cryptographic schemes typically used to accomplish these goals: secret key (or symmetric) cryptography, public-key (or asymmetric) cryptography, and hash functions. The initial unencrypted data is referred to as plaintext. It is then encrypted into ciphertext which will in turn be decrypted into usable plaintext.
An Introduction to Cryptography and Cryptanalysis
This comprehensive guide covers general and specific topics related to cryptography and cryptanalysis.
An Overview of Cryptography
This recently compiled and updated guide covers a variety of introductory topics, concepts, and key terms related to cryptography.
Cryptology: University of Virginia
This resource from the University of Virginia features comprehensive lecture notes and problem sets related to the field of cryptology.
Lecture Notes on Cryptography
This resource contains a set of lecture notes on cryptography for a course taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Introduction to Modern Cryptography
This resource contains a variety of topics covered in cryptography available in PDF form and slides.
Introduction to Cryptography
Mark Vandenwauver features a comprehensive guide to the principles of cryptography.
This resource provides an introduction, glossary, history, and other resources on cryptography and cryptanalysis.
Cryptology Home Page
This resource offers a concise and practical guide to introductory cryptological concepts.
Designs, Codes and Cryptography
This journal publishes articles on mathematics, combinatorics, coding, data structures, and information theory.
Dependable and Secure Computing
This journal publishes a variety of articles on mathematical and secure computing.
International Journal of Information Security
Topics for publication includes data encryption, operating systems, and coding and information.
Journal of Cryptology
The Journal of Cryptology publishes articles analyzing computational mathematics, numerical theory, probability, and networks.
Search for dissertations on cryptology by name, subject, keyword, author, or title.
Security and Communications Networks
This journal publishes articles on authentication, encryption, and ad hoc networks as well as other topics related to network security.
Mike Cowen’s Website
This resource features computer methods for solving Classical Ciphers as well as other algorithms.
BION’s Cipher Page
This website features a variety of tools for solving ciphers and algorithms.
The Chaocipher Clearinghouse
This resource contains information on “Chaocipher,” the name John F. Byrne gave to a cipher system he invented in 1918.
Tools and Software
Internet Anagram Server
Wordsmith is a global online community of people who share a love for words, wordplay, language, and literature.
Created by a team of computer scientists from Duke University in 1998, this resource builds upon a previous computer program solving the toughest American-style crossword puzzles.
Solve a Cipher
Solve ciphers or create a ciphertext using this resource.
American Association for the Advancement of Science
This resource from the American Association for the Advancement of Science provides information on crypto letters, legal documents, and publications.
American Cryptogram Association
The American Cryptogram Association (ACA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the hobby and art of cryptanalysis.
Computer Security Institute
Computer Security Institute has served as the original and leading educational membership organization for information security professionals for over 30 years.
Electronic Privacy Information Center
EPIC is a public interest research center in Washington, D.C. established to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values.
International Organization for Cryptologic Research
The International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) is a non-profit scientific organization whose purpose is to further research in cryptology and other related fields.
A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra
This complete guide covers key concepts related to computational number theory and algebra.
Computational Number Theory
This resource provides general and specific information related to Computational Number Theory as well as problems sets and examples.
Wolfram Math World: Number Theory
This resource provides information on a variety of concepts related to Number Theory.
Algorithmic Number Theory
Harvard University offers a links, tables, and other resource related to this number theory.
Number Theory Web
This resource offers information on number theorists as well as other lecture notes, teaching plans, and number theory centers.
Magma is a software package designed for computations in algebra, number theory, algebraic geometry and algebraic combinatorics.
Number Theoretic Primitives
Building upon mastery of Computational Number Theory, this publication deals with the concepts of Number-Theoretic Primitives.
The Prime Pages
This website offers a wealth of materials on research, records, and resources related to prime numbers.
Public Key Parameters and Encryption
Authenticated Encryption Slides
This tutorial covers key concepts of authenticated encryption.
This publication covers appropriate notions of security, and models and formalizations related to asymmetric or public key cryptography.
Public Key Encryption and Digital Signature: How Do They Work?
This guide provided an introduction to the concepts, terms, and related topics to Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signature.
This publication focuses primarily upon the key concept of privacy.
Symmetric Encryption Slides
This tutorial presents information on key formulas, problem sets, and information related to Symmetric Encryption.
This publication defines digital signature and covers topics such as the trap-door signatures, the has-then-invert paradigm, and other related schemes.
Digital Signatures Slides
This interactive tutorial provides information on the concepts, terms, and formulas related to digital signature.
Specification for Digital Signature Standard
This Standard specifies a suite of algorithms that can be used to generate a digital signature.
An Implementation Tutorial
This publication presents an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography and how it is used in the implementation of digital signature.
Efficient Implementation of Cryptographic Pairings
This comprehensive tutorial presents key concepts and information related to efficient implementation of cryptographic pairings.
Efficient Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography on DSP for Underwater Sensor Networks
This paper studies the implementation of elliptic curve cryptography in underwater networks.